GMO BACKGROUND
Cellini F., Chesson A., Colquhoun I., Constable A., Davies H.V, Engel K.H, Gatehouse A.M.R, Kärenlampi S., Kok E.J., Leguay J.J., Lehesranta S., Noteborn H., Pedersen J., Smith M. (2004). Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42:1089-1125.

Freeman, S. (2008). Biological science. San Francisco, CA: Pearson.

Icoz I., Stotzky G. (2008). Fate and effects of insect-resistant Bt crops in soil ecosystems, Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 40:559-586.

Whitman, D. (2000). "Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" CSA.



ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GMO'S
Bouis H. 2007. The Potential of Genetically Modified Food Crops to Improve Human Nutrition in Develpoing Countries. Journal of Development Studies. 43:1.

Breckling B., Reuter H., MiddelhofF U., Glemnitz M., Wurbs A., Schmidt G., et al. (2011). Risk indication of genetically modified organisms (GMO): Modelling environmental exposure and dispersal across different scales: Oilseed rape in northern germany as an integrated case study. Ecological Indicators,11(4), 936-941.

Carstens, K., Anderson, J., Bachman, P., De Schrijver, A., Dively, G., Federici, B., Waggoner, A. (2011). Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing. Transgenic Res.

Carstens KL, Hayter K, Layton RJ (2010) A perspective on problem formulation and exposure assessment of transgenic crops. IOBC/WPRS Bull 52:23–30

Cohen N., Chang A., Boyer H., Helling R. (1973). Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids In Vitro. Proc. Natl. Academy of Science. 70 (11): 3240-3244.

Morrissey, J et al. (2002). Exploitation of genetically modified inoculants fro industrial ecology applications. Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek, 81:599-606.

Tingting Xu, Dan M. Close, Gary S. Sayler, Steven Ripp. (2012). Genetically modified whole-cell bioreporters for environmental assessment. Ecological Indicators.

Whitman, D. (2000). "Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" CSA.

Williamson, M. (1992), Environmental risks from the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)–the need for molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology, 1: 3–8.



CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR EFFECTS
Bakke-McKellep, A. M., Refstie, S. S., Stefansson, S. O., Vanthanouvong, V. V., Roomans, G. G., Hemre, G. I., & Krogdah, Å. Å. (2006). Effects of dietary soybean meal and photoperiod cycle on osmoregulation following seawater exposure in Atlantic salmon smolts. Journal Of Fish Biology,69(5), 1396-1426.

Bakke-McKellep, A., Sanden, M., Danieli, A., Acierno, R., Hemre, G. I., Maffia, M., & Krogdahl, Å. (2008). Atlantic salmon (salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: Histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations. Research in Veterinary Science,84(3), 395-408.

Bjerkas, E and Sveier H. (2003). The influence of nutritional and environmental factors on osmoregulation and cataracts in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L). Aquaculture, 235 (1-4), 101-122.

Conner, A. J., Glare, T. R., & Nap, J. (2003). The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. The Plant Journal,33(1), 19-46.

Cook J.T., McNiven M.A., Richardson G.F., Sutterlin A.M. (2000). Growth rate, body composition and feed digestibility/conversion of growth-enhanced transgenic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 188, 15-32.

Douville, M., Gagne, F., Blaise, C., & Andre, C. (2007). Occurrence and persistence of< i> bacillus thuringiensis</i>(bt) and transgenic bt corn< i> cry1Ab</i> gene from an aquatic environment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety,66(2), 195-203.

Freeman, S. (Ed.). (2008). Biological science (Third ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson.

Handeland, S.O. and S.O. Stefansson. (2002). Effects of salinity acclimation on pre-smolt growth, smolting and post-smolt performance in off-season Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 209(1-4), 125-127.

Handeland, S.O., Porter, M., Bjornsson, B.T., Stefansson, S.O. (2003) Osmoregulation and growth in a wild and a selected strain of Atlantic salmon smolts on two photoperiod regimes. Aquaculture, 222(1-4), 29-43.

Imsland, A., Våge, K., Handeland, S., & Stefansson, S. (2011). Growth and osmoregulation in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts in response to different feeding frequencies and salinities. Aquaculture Research, 42(4), 469-479.

Netherwood, T., & Gilbert, H. J. (1999). Probiotics shown to change bacterial community structure in the avian gastrointestinal tract. Applied & Environmental Microbiology,65(11), 5134.

Nielsen W., Jensen H., Boydler A., Berdal C., K. G. (2011). Quantification of dietary DNA in tissues of atlantic salmon ( salmo salar L.) fed genetically modified feed ingredients. Aquaculture Nutrition,17(2), 668-674.

Viebahn M., Smit E., Glandorf D. C. M., Wernars C., & Bakker, P. H. M. (2009). Effects of genetically modified bacteria and their potential benefits for bioremediation and biocontrol of plant diseases. Sustainable Architecture,2, 45 - 69.



ORGANISMAL EFFECTS
Bertoni, G., and P. Marson. (2005). "Safety Risks for Animals Fed Genetic Modified (GM) Plants." Veterinary Research Communications: 13-18.

Hemre, G., Sanden, M., Bakke-Mckellep A., Sagstad, A. (2005). Growth, feed utilization and health of atlantic salmonSalmo salarL. fed genetically modified compared to non-modified commercial hybrid soybeans. Aquaculture Nutrition,11(3), 157-167.

Hemre, G., Sagstad, A., Bakke-Mckellep A., Danieli, A., Acierno, R., Maffia, M., et al. (2007). Nutritional, physiological, and histological responses in atlantic salmon, salmo salar L. fed diets with genetically modified maize. Aquaculture Nutrition,13(3), 186-199.

Handeland, S.O., Porter, M., Björnsson, B.T., Stefansson, S.O. (2003). Osmoregulation and growth in a wild and a selected strain of Atlantic salmon smolts on two photoperiod regimes. Aquaculture, 222(1-4), 29 - 43. Science Direct.

Rhee, G. S. (2005). Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues,68(23-24), 2263.

Rosi-Marshall, E. J., Tank, J. L., Royer, T. V., Whiles, M. R., Evans-White, M., Chambers, C., et al. (2007). Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(41), 16204-16208.

Sagstad, A., Sanden, M., Haugland, Ø., Hansen, A. -., Olsvik, P. A., & Hemre, G. -. (2007). Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in atlantic salmon, salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Journal of Fish Diseases.

Sanden, M., Berntssen, M. H. G., Krogdahl, Hemre, G., & Bakke-McKellep, A. (2005). An examination of the intestinal tract of atlantic salmon, salmo salar L., parr fed different varieties of soy and maize. Journal of Fish Diseases,28(6), 317-330.

Séralini, G., Cellier, D., & Vendomois, J. (2007). New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology,52(4), 596-602. doi:10.1007/s00244-006-0149-5



ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Axelsson, E. (2010). Can Leaf Litter from Genetically Modified Trees Affect Aquatic Ecosystems? Ecosystems, 7:1049-1059.

Bilby, R. E., & Likens, G. E. (1980). Importance of organic debris dams in the structure and function of stream ecosystems. Ecology,61(5), pp. 1107-1113.

Bowlby, H. D., & Gibson, A. F. (2011). Reduction in fitness limits the useful duration of supplementary rearing in an endangered salmon population.Ecological Applications, 21(8), 3032-3048.

Bretherton, W. D., Kominoski, J. S., Fischer, D. G., & LeRoy, C. J. (2011). Salmon carcasses alter leaf litter species diversity effects on in-stream decomposition. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences,68(8), 1495-1506.
Brühl,Carsten A. (2011) Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.

Clews E., Durance I., Vaughan I.P., Ormerod S.J. (2010). Juvenile salmonid populations in a temperate river system track synoptic trends in climate. Global Change Biology. 16(12):3271-3283.

Holtgrieve, G. W., & Schindler, D. E. (2011). Marine-derived nutrients, bioturbation, and ecosystem metabolism: Reconsidering the role of salmon in streams. Ecology,92(2), 373-385.

Kline, T.C., C.A. Woody, M.A. Bishop, S.P. Powers, and E.E. Knudsen. (2007). Assessment of Marine-Derived Nutrients in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, Using Natural Abundance of the Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Carbon. American Fisheries Society Symposium 54:51-60.

O’Callaghan M., Glare T.R., Burgess E.P., Malone L.A. (2005). Effects of Plants Genetically Modified for Insect Resistance on Nontarget Organisms. Entomology. 50:271-292.

Relyea, Rick A. (2005). The Lethal Impact of Roundup on Aquatic and Terrestrial Amphibians. Ecological Applications 15:1118–1124.

Rosi-Marshall, E. J., Tank, J. L., Royer, T. V., Whiles, M. R., Evans-White, M., Chambers, C., et al. (2007). Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(41), 16204-16208.

Schiemann, Joachim (2003). "Co-existence of Genetically Modified Crops with Conventional and Organic Farming." Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.. Web. 04 May 2012

Sobecky, P et al. (1996). Isolation of Broad-Host-Range Replicons from Marine Sediment Bacteria. Applied and Enviornmental Microbiology, 64:2822-2830.

Yanai, S., & Kochi, K. (2005). Effects of salmon carcasses on experimental stream ecosystems in hokkaido, japan. Ecological Research,20(4), 471-480.



INTEGRATION
Fraser, P. J. (1987). Atlantic salmon, salmo salar L., feed in scottish coastal waters. Aquaculture & Fisheries Management,18(3), 243-247. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=8476476&site=ehost-live

Kekäläinen, J., Niva, T., & Huuskonen, H. (2008). Pike predation on hatchery-reared atlantic salmon smolts in a northern baltic river. Ecology of Freshwater Fish,17(1), 100-109. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.2007.00263.x

Thompson, P. M., & Mackay, F. (1999). Pattern and prevalence of predator damage on adult atlantic salmon, salmo salar L., returning to a river system in north-east scotland. Fisheries Management & Ecology,6(4), 335. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=6104162&site=ehost-live